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It is go… 4 Replies order 'pull' in rowing Last post 08 Apr 13, In need of language advice? Get help from other users in our forums.

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Ready to row , row. The boats are stored on racks horizontal bars, usually metal on the ground floor. Oars, riggers, and other equipment is stored around the boats.

Boat houses are typically associated with rowing clubs and include some social facilities on the upper floor: Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively.

There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. Time trials occur in the UK during the winter, and are referred to as Head races.

In the US, head races usually about 5k, depending on the body of water are rowed in the fall, while 2k sprint races are rowed in the spring and summer.

Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport.

This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely.

Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first.

The number of boats in a race typically varies between two which is sometimes referred to as a dual race to eight, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough.

The standard length races for the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships is 2 kilometres 1. A feature of the end of twentieth century rowing was the development of non-olympic multicrew racing boats, typically fixed seat-gigs, pilot boats and in Finland church- or longboats.

The most usual craft in races held around the coasts of Britain during summer months is the Cornish pilot gig , most typically in the south-west, with crews of 6 from local towns and races of varying distances.

The Cornish pilot gig was designed and built to ferry harbour and river pilots to and from ships in fierce coastal waters.

The boat needed to be stable and fast with the large crew hence making it ideal for its modern racing usage.

In Finland oared churchboats race throughout the summer months, usually on lakes, and often with mixed crews. The weekend features the World Masters churchboat event which also includes a 2 kilometres 1.

Two traditional non-standard distance shell races are the annual Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge and the Harvard-Yale Boat Race which cover courses of approximately 4 miles 6.

In general, multi-boat competitions are organized in a series of rounds, with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round.

The losing boats from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage. The World Rowing Championships offers multi-lane racing in heats, finals and repechages.

At Henley Royal Regatta two crews compete side by side in each round, in a straightforward knock-out format , with no repechages. Head courses usually vary in length from 2, metres 1.

The oldest, and arguably most famous, head race is the Head of the River Race , founded by Steve Fairbairn in which takes place each March on the river Thames in London , United Kingdom.

Head racing was exported to the United States in the s, and the Head of the Charles Regatta held each October on the Charles River in Boston , Massachusetts , United States is now the largest rowing event in the world.

These processional races are known as Head Races , because, as with bumps racing, the fastest crew is awarded the title Head of the River as in "head of the class".

It was not deemed feasible to run bumps racing on the Tideway, so a timed format was adopted and soon caught on.

Time trials are sometimes used to determine who competes in an event where there is a limited number of entries, for example the qualifying races for Henley Royal Regatta, and rowing on and getting on for the Oxford and Cambridge Bumps races respectively.

A bumps race is a multi-day race beginning with crews lined up along the river at set intervals. They start simultaneously and all pursue the boat ahead while avoiding being bumped by a boat from behind.

If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result, damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing.

To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped.

The positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to non-university crews.

The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return.

These races are popular with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only two boats would race at once to avoid collision.

The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but it is run as a head race with an interval start. In Irish coastal rowing the boats are in individual lanes with the races consisting of up to 3 turns to make the race distance 2.

The Olympic Games are held every four years, where only select boat classes are raced 14 in total:. Athletes generally consider the Olympic classes to be premier events.

There are many differing sets of rules governing racing, and these are generally defined by the governing body of the sport in a particular country—e.

The rules are mostly similar but do vary; for example, British Rowing requires coxswains to wear buoyancy aids at all times, whereas FISA rules do not.

Rowers in multi-rower boats are numbered sequentially from the bow aft. The number-one rower is called the bowman, or just 'bow', whilst the rower closest to the stern is called the 'strokeman' or just 'stroke'.

There are some exceptions to this — some UK coastal rowers, and in France, Spain, and Italy rowers number from stern to bow. In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles.

The middle four sometimes called the "engine room" or "power house" are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat.

They also have most influence on the line the boat steers. The coxswain or simply the cox is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers.

They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.

It is an advantage for the coxswain to be light, as this requires less effort for the crew to propel the boat.

In many competitive events there is a minimum weight set for the coxswain to prevent unfair advantage. If a coxswain is under the minimum weight allowance underweight they may have to carry weights in the boat such as sandbags.

In most levels of rowing there are different weight classes — typically "open" or referred to as "heavyweight" and lightweight. Competitive rowing favours tall, muscular athletes due to the additional leverage height provides in pulling the oar through the water as well as the explosive power needed to propel the boat at high speed.

Heavyweight rowers of both sexes tend to be very tall, broad-shouldered, have long arms and legs as well as tremendous cardiovascular capacity and low body fat ratios.

Some rowing enthusiasts claim that the disproportionate number of tall rowers is simply due to the unfair advantage that tall rowers have on the ergometer.

This is due to the ergometer's inability to properly simulate the larger rowers drag on a boat due to weight.

Since the ergometer is used to assess potential rowers, results on the ergometer machine play a large role in a rower's career success.

Thus, many erg scores are weight-adjusted, as heavyweights typically find it easier to get better erg scores.

Also, since crew selection has favored tall rowers long before the advent of the ergometer, [46] [47] and bigger, taller crews are almost universally faster than smaller, shorter crews on the water, being tall is a definite advantage ultimately having little to do with the ergometer.

Unlike most other non-combat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight Lwt for short.

According to FISA, this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people".

The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in for men and for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in At the junior level in the United States , regattas require each rower to weigh in at least two hours before their race; they are sometimes given two chances to make weight at smaller regattas, with the exception of older more prestigious regattas, which allow only one opportunity to make weight.

For juniors in the United States, the lightweight cutoff for men is At the collegiate level in the United States , the lightweight weight requirements can be different depending on competitive season.

For fall regattas typically head races , the lightweight cutoff for men is In the spring season typically sprint races , the lightweight cutoff for men is Women row in all boat classes, from single scull to coxed eights, across the same age ranges and standards as men, from junior amateur through university-level to elite athlete.

The first international women's races were the European Rowing Championships. Rowing at the Summer Olympics in London included six events for women compared with eight for men.

At the international level, women's rowing traditionally has been dominated by Eastern European countries, such as Romania, Russia, and Bulgaria, although other countries such as Germany, Canada, the Netherlands, Great Britain and New Zealand often field competitive teams.

Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Rowing events use a systematic nomenclature for the naming of events, so that age, gender, ability and size of boat can all be expressed in a few numbers and letters.

The first letter to be used is 'L' or 'Lt' for lightweight. If absent then the crew is open weight. This can be followed by either a 'J' or 'B' to signify junior under 19 years or under 23 years respectively.

If absent the crew is open age the letter 'O' is sometimes used. Next is either an 'M' or 'W' to signify if the crew are men or women.

Then there is a number to show how many athletes are in the boat 1,2,4 or 8. An 'x' following the number indicates a sculling boat.

Some events will use an experience rating to separate races. Masters events use age ranges to separate crews of older rowers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For rowing as a method of transport or for recreation, see Rowing. For other uses, see Rowing disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Eight classes of racing boats, six of which are part of the Summer Olympic Games. Anatomy of a rowing stroke.

The actual fitting that holds the oar may be as simple as one or two pegs or thole pins or a metal oarlock also called rowlock - "rollock".

In performance rowing craft, the rowlock is usually extended outboard on a "rigger" to allow the use of a longer oar for increased power. Sculling involves a seated rower who pulls on two oars or sculls , attached to the boat, thereby moving the boat in the direction opposite that which the rower faces.

In some multiple-seat boats seated rowers each pull on a single " sweep " oar, usually with both hands.

Sometimes sliding seats are used to enable the rower to use the leg muscles, substantially increasing the power available. An alternative to the sliding seat, called a sliding rigger , uses a stationary seat and the rower moves the oarlocks with his feet.

On a craft used in Italy, the catamaran moscone , the rower stands and takes advantage of his body weight to increase leverage while sculling.

Articulated or bow facing oars have two-piece oars and use a mechanical transmission to reverse the direction of the oar blade, enabling a seated rower to row facing forward with a pulling motion.

Push rowing , also called back-watering if used in a boat not designed for forward motion, uses regular oars with a pushing motion to achieve forward-facing travel, sometimes seated and sometimes standing.

This is a convenient method of manoeuvring in a narrow waterway or through a busy harbour. The "Rantilla" system of frontrowing oars uses inboard mounted oarlocks rather than a reversing transmission to achieve forward motion of the boat with a pulling motion on the oars.

Another system also called sculling involves using a single oar extending from the stern of the boat which is moved back and forth under water somewhat like a fish tail, such as the Chinese yuloh , by which quite large boats can be moved.

The beginning of rowing is rather clouded in history but the use of oars in the way we use them today can be traced back ancient Egypt. Whether it was invented in Egypt or something they picked up from Mesopotamia via trade is unsure.

However a model is found of a rowing vessel in a tomb dating back to the th century BC. From Egypt the use of rowing vessels, especially galleys , were extensively used in naval warfare and trade first in the Mediterranean from classical antiquity onwards.

Galleys had advantages over sailing ships; they were easier to maneuver, capable of short bursts of speed, and able to move independently of the wind.

Galleys continued in use in the Mediterranean until the advent of steam propulsion. Their galleys use in northern Atlantic waters was less successful, finishing with their poor performance with the Spanish Armada.

A change that might been hastened by the Roman conquest of Northern Gaul. Since boats sown together is found dating back to this time and their form favors padeling or sailing.

The Classical trireme used rowers; later galleys included even larger crews. Trireme oarsmen used leather cushions to slide over the seats, which allowed them to use their leg strength as a modern oarsman does with a sliding seat.

Galleys usually had masts and sails, but would lower them at the approach of combat. Greek fleets would also leave their sails and masts on shore as being unnecessary weight if possible.

This allows the boat to manoeuvre very quickly and with agility - useful in the narrow and busy canals of Venice.

Competitive regattas are also held using the Venetian rowing technique, using both gondolas and other types of vessels.

The origins of this distinctive and practical craft are unclear. In earlier times, however, builders were often sailors or seafaring men.

Successful designs for large and small craft alike evolved slowly and as certain desirable qualities were attained and perfected they rarely changed.

Some hold that the Whitehall rowing boat design was introduced from England. However the famed nautical historian Howard I.

Chapelle , cites the opinion of the late W. Chapelle, Stephens and others agree that the design came into existence some time in the s in New York City, having first been built by navy yard apprentices who had derived their model to some extent from the old naval gig.

The following year the boat was gifted to an aging General Lafayette , hero of the American Revolution, during his tour of the U.

The American Star returned to Lafayette's estate in France where it was displayed in a specially constructed gazebo. During the mid 20th century the boat was rediscovered in storage there, and its lines have been preserved at Mystic Seaport where an exact replica was built in —75, and is still rowed at Seaport events.

Many considerations go into selecting a good rowboat. A well designed rowboat will perform well in trying conditions. The classic shapes of rowboats reflect an evolution of hundreds of years of trial and error to get a good shape.

Some factors to be considered are waterline length, speed, carrying capacity, stability, windage, weight, seaworthiness, cost, waterline beam, the fullness or fineness of the ends, and trim.

Design details are a compromise between competing factors.

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